July 9–19, 2007
Wrocław — Poland


  • 34th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
  • 22nd Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
  • Logic Colloquium 2007
  • 9th ACM-SIGPLAN International Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming
Institute of Computer Science

LICS 2007: abstracts of accepted papers

LICS invited lectures

The Kepler Conjecture and the Flyspeck Project
Thomas C. Hales

Many elementary problems in geometry arise as part of the proof of the Kepler conjecture on sphere packings. In the original proof, most of these problems were solved by hand. This article investigates the methods that were used in the original proof and describes a number of other methods that might be used to automate the proofs of these problems. A companion article presents the collection of elementary problems in geometry for which automated proofs are sought. This article is a contribution to the Flyspeck project, which aims to give a complete formal proof of the Kepler conjecture.

Reflections on Finite Model Theory
Phokion G. Kolaitis

Advances in finite model theory have appeared in LICS proceedings since the very beginning of the LICS Symposium. The goal of this paper is to reflect on finite model theory by highlighting some of its successes, examining obstacles that were encountered, and discussing some open problems that have stubbornly resisted solution.

Joint LICS/ICALP invited lectures

The Algebraic Theory of Effects
Gordon Plotkin
Highly Efficient Secrecy-Preserving Proofs of Correctness of Computations and Applications
Michael O. Rabin, Rocco A. Servedio and Christopher Thorpe

We present a highly efficient method for proving correctness of computations while preserving secrecy of the input values. This is done in an Evaluator-Prover model which can also be realized by a secure processor. We describe an application to secure auctions.

Joint LICS/LC invited lectures

Combinatorics of Proofs
Martin Hyland

Ideally interpretations of proofs should exhibit some essential combinatorial features in an interesting and appealing way. As a case study, one can consider the notion of innocent strategy which is the basis for a game semantical interpretation of proofs and programmes. Some combinatorial content of this notion is sketched in the joint LICS paper accompanying this talk, whose abstract reads as follows.

We show how to construct the category of games and innocent strategies from a more primitive category of games. On that category we define a comonad and monad with the former distributing over the latter. Innocent strategies are the maps in the induced two-sided Kleisli category. Thus the problematic composition of innocent strategies reflects the use of the distributive law. The composition of simple strategies, and the combinatorics of pointers used to give the comonad and monad are themselves described in categorical terms. The notions of view and of legal play arise naturally in the explanation of the distributivity. The category-theoretic perspective provides a clear discipline for the necessary combinatorics.

There are other instances of a kind of categorical combinatorics of proofs, but in this talk I shall restrict myself to the one instance.

Skolemization in Constructive Theories
Rosalie Iemhoff

It has long been known that Skolemization is sound but not complete for intuitionistic logic. We will show that by slightly extending the expressive power of the logic one can define a translation that removes strong quantifiers from predicate formulas and that is related but not equal to Skolemization. Since the extended logic is constructive, the translation can be considered as an alternative to Skolemization for constructive settings. The result easily implies an analogue of Herbrand's theorem. We will apply the method to various constructive theories and compare it to other Skolemization methods and related translations like the Dialectica Interpretation.

Non-well-founded Proofs
Alex Simpson

I will discuss various situations, arising in computer science, mathematics and logic, in which one is naturally led to consider associated proof systems involving interesting forms of non-well-founded proof.

Higher-Order Matching, Games and Automata
Colin Stirling

We describe a particular case where methods such as model-checking as used in verification are transferred to simply typed lambda calculus. Higher-order matching is the problem given t = u where t, u are terms of simply typed lambda-calculus and u is closed, is there a substitution θ such that and u have the same normal form with respect to beta-eta-equality: can t be pattern matched to u? In the talk we consider the question: can we characterize the set of all solution terms to a matching problem? We provide an automata-theoretic account that is relative to resource: given a matching problem and a finite set of variables and constants, the (possibly infinite) set of terms that are built from those components and that solve the problem is regular. The characterization uses standard bottom-up tree automata. However, the technical proof uses a game-theoretic characterization of matching.

Can Logic Tame Systems Programs?
Cristiano Calcagno

We report on our experience on designing and implementing tools for automatic reasoning about safety of systems programs using separation logic. We highlight some of the fundamental obstacles that need to be overcome, such as the complexity of data structures and scalability of the methods, on the path to realistic systems programs.

Infinite sets that admit exhaustive search I
Martín Escardó
(The second talk: Infinite sets that admit exhaustive search II is included in session Topology and Computable Mathematics.)

Perhaps surprisingly, there are infinite sets that admit mechanical exhaustive search in finite time. We investigate three related questions: (1) What kinds of infinite sets admit exhaustive search? (2) How do we systematically build such sets? (3) How fast can exhaustive search over infinite sets be performed?

We give answers to them in the realm of Kleene-Kreisel higher-type computation: (1) involves the topological notion of compactness, (2) amounts to the usual closure properties of compact sets, including the Tychonoff theorem, (3) provides some fast algorithms and a conjecture.

These two talks include my contributed LICS paper, but go beyond in two respects: a general introduction to the role of topology in computation is given, and a few new results are included, such as an Arzela-Ascoli type characterization of exhaustible sets.

Type Theory

Dependent Types with Universes via Normalization-by-Evaluation
Andreas Abel, Thierry Coquand and Peter Dybjer

A dependently typed language with universes and conversion-as-judgment is introduced. The main technical device to establish its meta-theoretical properties are a normalization-by-evaluation algorithm, a PER model on the semantics and a logical relation between syntax and semantics. Central properties like the injectivity of dependent function space constructor are proven with these semantical tools. The method extends to systems with singleton types and first class modules, thus, showing decidability of equality and type-checking for a combination of universes.and singleton types for the first time.

Strong Normalization as Safe Interaction
Colin Riba

The elimination rule of union types (denoted by (UE)) can break strong normalization (i.e. is unsafe) in presence of non-determinism. This is quite disturbing, since union types are often required in presence of non-deterministic computations. Surprisingly, there are also confluent systems for which this rule is unsafe. It appears that studying the safety of (UE) amounts to the characterization in a term of safe interactions between some of its subterms.

In this paper, we study the safety of the elimination rule of union types for an extension of the lambda calculus with simple rewrite rules. We prove that the union and intersection types discipline is complete w.r.t. strong normalization. This allows to show that (UE) is safe iff an interpretation of types based on biorthogonals is sound for it.

We then provide two syntactic sufficient conditions for the safety of (UE). The first one is issued from the closure by union of reducibility candidates while the second is issued from the closure by union of a biorthogonality relation. We show that closure by union of reducibility candidates implies completeness of intersection type assignment.

Finally, we discuss an alternative biorthogonality relation, based on the observation of the least reducibility candidate.

A Dependent Set Theory
Wojciech Moczydłowski

Set theories are traditionally based on the first-order logic. We show that in a constructive setting, basing a set theory on a dependent logic yields many benefits. To this end, we introduce a dependent impredicative constructive set theory which we call IZFD. Using realizability, we prove that the underlying lambda calculus weakly normalizes, thus enabling program extraction from IZFD proofs. We also show that IZFD can interpret IZF with Collection. By a well-known result of Friedman, this establishes IZFD as a remarkably strong theory, with proof-theoretical power equal to that of ZFC. We further demonstrate that IZFD provides a natural framework to interpret first-order definitions, thus removing a longstanding barrier to implementing constructive set theories. Finally, we prove that IZFD extended with excluded middle is consistent, thus paving the way to using our framework in the classical setting.


A Complete Axiomatization of Knowledge and Cryptography
Mika Cohen and Mads Dam

The combination of first-order epistemic logic and formal cryptography offers a potentially very powerful framework for security protocol verification. In this article, we address two main challenges towards such a combination; First, the expressive power, specifically the epistemic modality, needs to receive concrete computational justification. Second, the logic must be shown to be, in some sense, formally tractable. Addressing the first challenge, we provide a generalized Kripke semantics that uses permutations on the underlying domain of cryptographic messages to reflect agents' limited computational power. Using this approach, we obtain logical characterizations of important concepts of knowledge in the security protocol literature, specifically Dolev-Yao style message deduction and static equivalence. Answering the second challenge, we exhibit an axiomatization which is sound and complete relative to the underlying theory of cryptographic terms, and to an omega rule for quantifiers. The axiomatization uses largely standard axioms and rules from first-order modal logic. In addition, there are some novel axioms for the interaction between knowledge and cryptography. To illustrate the usefulness of the logic we consider protocol examples using mixes, a Crowds style protocol, and electronic payments. Furthermore, we provide embedding results for BAN and SVO.

Computational Proof Theory

Principles of Superdeduction
Paul Brauner, Clément Houtmann and Claude Kirchner

In predicate logic, the proof that a theorem P holds in a theory Th is typically conducted in natural deduction or in the sequent calculus using all the information contained in the theory in a uniform way. Introduced ten years ago, Deduction modulo allows us to make use of the computational part of the theory Th for true computations modulo which deductions are performed.

Focussing on the sequent calculus, this paper presents and studies the dual concept where the theory is used to enrich the deduction system with new deduction rules in a systematic, correct and complete way. We call such a new deduction system "superdeduction".

We introduce a proof-term language and a cut-elimination procedure both based on Christian Urban's work on classical sequent calculus. Strong normalisation is proven under appropriate and natural hypothesis, therefore ensuring the consistency of the deduction system.

The proofs obtained in such a new system are much closer to the human intuition and practice. We consequently show how superdeduction along with deduction modulo can be used to ground the formal foundations of new extendible proof assistants. We finally present lemuridae, our current implementation of superdeduction modulo.

Complete Sequent Calculi for Induction and Infinite Descent
James Brotherston and Alex Simpson

This paper compares two different styles of reasoning with inductively defined predicates, each of the styles being encapsulated by a corresponding sequent calculus proof system.

The first system supports traditional proof by induction, with induction rules formulated as sequent rules for introducing inductively defined predicates on the left of sequents. We show this system to be cut-free complete with respect to a natural class of Henkin models; the eliminability of cut follows as a corollary.

The second system uses infinite (non-well-founded) proofs to represent arguments by infinite descent. In this system, the left rules for inductively defined predicates are simple case-split rules, and an infinitary, global condition on proof trees is required to ensure soundness. We show this system to be cut-free complete with respect to standard models, and again infer the eliminability of cut.

The second infinitary system is unsuitable for formal reasoning. However, it has a natural restriction to proofs given by regular trees, i.e. to those proofs representable by finite graphs. This restricted "cyclic" system subsumes the first system for proof by induction. We conjecture that the two systems are in fact equivalent, i.e., that proof by induction is equivalent to regular proof by infinite descent.

Timed and Stochastic Systems

Limits of Multi–Discounted Markov Decision Processes
Hugo Gimbert and Wiesław Zielonka

Markov decision processes (MDPs) are natural models of controllable discrete event systems with stochastic transitions. Performance of MDPs can be measured in different ways. The controller of a mean-payoff MDP seeks to optimize average performance, whereas in a discounted MDP a discount factor is used to give more weight to early steps of the play. Another example is provided by parity MDPs which are used to encode logical specifications.

A classical result of game theory establishes that mean-payoff MDPs are limits of discounted MDPs whose discount factor tends to 0. De Alfaro et al. considered the more general class of discounted MDPs with multiple discount factors (multi-discounted MDPs), and established that parity MDPs are limits of certain sequences of multi-discounted MDPs whose discount factors converge to 0 one after another.

We introduce the class of priority weighted MDPs, which are a generalization of both parity MDPs and mean-payoff MDPs. We prove that priority weighted MDPs admit optimal pure stationary strategies. As a corollary we show that priority weighted MPDs are limits of multidiscounted MDPs whose discount factors converge to 0 simultaneously but with different speeds.

Game Relations and Metrics
Luca de Alfaro, Rupak Majumdar, Vishwanath Raman and Marielle Stoelinga

We study notions of equivalences and metrics on concurrent game structures that call two states equivalent if the value obtained by player 1 for winning objectives in a quantitative fixpoint calculus at the two states are equal. We study two properties of the relations: logical characterization and reciprocity (the equivalence of the player 1 version and the player 2 version of the relations). We extend alternating bisimulation to games where the players are allowed randomized strategies and the transition relation may be probabilistic. We show that the resulting game relations are incomparable to the (non-probabilistic) alternating relations.

Since game equivalences may be too strict in the presence of numerical probabilities, we study their metric analogues which associate a distance to each pair of states such that two states are close in the metric if the value obtained by player 1 for any winning objective from these states are close. We study two metrics on games and show that the two coincide on Markov decision processes (MDPs). For games, we show the two notions are distinct, and perhaps surprisingly, the natural extension of the MDP definition does not characterize the quantitative μ-calculus nor satisfy reciprocity. For the second formulation, we prove a continuity theorem w.r.t. the quantitative μ-calculus and show reciprocity holds.

Our results provide compositional reasoning principles to concurrent games with probabilistic transition relations and randomized strategies.

The Cost of Punctuality
Patricia Bouyer, Nicolas Markey, Joel Ouaknine and James Worrell

In an influential paper titled “The Benefits of Relaxing Punctuality” (JACM 1996), Alur, Feder, and Henzinger introduced Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) as a fragment of the real-time logic Metric Temporal Logic (MTL) in which exact or punctual timing constraints are banned. Their main result showed that model checking and satisfiability for MITL are both EXPSPACE-complete.

Until recently, it was widely believed that admitting even the simplest punctual specifications in any linear-time temporal logic would automatically lead to undecidability. Although this was recently disproved, until now no punctual fragment of MTL was known to have even primitive recursive complexity (with certain decidable fragments having provably non-primitive recursive complexity).

In this paper we identify a subset of MTL that is capable of expressing a large class of punctual specifications and for which model checking (although not satisfiability) has no complexity cost over MITL. Our logic is moreover qualitatively different from MITL in that it can express properties that are not timed regular. Correspondingly, our decision procedures do not involve translating formulas into finite-state automata, but rather to certain kinds of reversal-bounded Turing machines. Using this translation we show that the model checking problem for our logic is EXPSPACE-complete, and is even PSPACE-complete if timing constraints are encoded in unary.


First-order and Temporal Logics for Nested Words
Rajeev Alur, Marcelo Arenas, Pablo Barcelo, Kousha Etessami, Neil Immerman and Leonid Libkin

Nested words are a structured model of execution paths in procedural programs, reflecting their call and return nesting structure. Finite nested words also capture the structure of parse trees and other tree-structured data, such as XML.

We provide new temporal logics for finite and infinite nested words, which are natural extensions of LTL, and prove that these logics are first-order expressively-complete. One of them is based on adding a “within” modality, evaluating a formula on a subword, to a logic CARET previously studied in the context of verifying properties of recursive state machines. The other logic is based on the notion of a program path that combines the linear and nesting structures. For that logic, both model-checking and satisfiability are shown to be EXPTIME-complete.

Finally, we prove that first-order logic over nested words has the three-variable property, and we present a temporal logic for nested words which is complete for the two-variable fragment of first-order.

A Robust Class of Context-Sensitive Languages
Salvatore La Torre, Madhusudan Parthasarathy and Gennaro Parlato

We define a new class of languages defined by multi-stack automata that forms a robust subclass of context-sensitive languages, with decidable emptiness and closure under boolean operations.

This class, called multistack visibly pushdown languages (MVPLs) is defined using multi-stack pushdown automata with two restrictions:

  1. the pushdown automaton is visible, i.e. the input letter determines the operation on the stacks, and
  2. any computation of the machine can be split into k stages, where in each stage, there is at most one stack that is popped.

MVPLs are an extension of visibly pushdown languages that captures non-context free behaviours, and has applications in analyzing abstractions of multithreaded recursive programs, significantly enlarging the search space that can be explored for them.

We show that MVPLs are closed under boolean operations, and problems such as emptiness and inclusion are decidable. We characterize MVPLs using monadic second-order logic over appropriate structures, and exhibit a Parikh theorem for them.

A New Efficient Simulation Equivalence Algorithm
Francesco Ranzato and Francesco Tapparo

It is well known that simulation equivalence is an appropriate astraction to be used in model checking because it strongly preserves ACTL* and provides a better space reduction than bisimulation equivalence. However, computing simulation equivalence is harder than computing bisimulation equivalence. A number of algorithms for computing simulation equivalence exist. Let Sigma denote the state space, -> the transition relation and P_sim the partition induced by simulation equivalence. The algorithms by Henzinger, Henzinger, Kopke and by Bloom and Paige run in O(|→| |Σ|)-time and, as far as time-complexity is concerned, they are the best available algorithms. However, these algorithms have the drawback of a quadratic space complexity that is limited from below by Ω(|Σ|2). The algorithm by Gentilini, Piazza, Policriti appears to be the best algorithm when both time and space complexities are taken into account. Gentilini et al.'s algorithm runs in O(|Psim|2 |→|)-time while the space complexity is in O(|Psim|2 + |Σ|log(|Psim|)). We present here a new efficient simulation equivalence algorithm that is obtained as a modification of Henzinger et al.'s algorithm and whose correctness is based on some techniques used in recent applications of abstract interpretation to model checking. Our algorithm runs in O(|Psim| |→|)-time and O(|Psim| |Σ|)-space. Thus, while retaining a space complexity which is lower than quadratic, our algorithm improves on the best time bound.

Infinite State AMC-Model Checking for Cryptographic Protocols
Detlef Kaehler, Ralf Kuesters and Tomasz Truderung

Only very little is known about the automatic analysis of cryptographic protocols for game-theoretic security properties. In this paper, we therefore study decidability and complexity of the model checking problem for AMC-formulas over infinite state concurrent game structures induced by cryptographic protocols and the Dolev-Yao intruder. We show that the problem is NEXPTIME-complete when making reasonable assumptions about protocols and for an expressive fragment of AMC, which contains, for example, all properties formulated by Kremer and Raskin in fair ATL for contract-signing and non-repudiation protocols. We also prove that our assumptions on protocols are necessary to obtain decidability.

Two-way unary temporal logic over trees
Mikołaj Bojańczyk

We consider a temporal logic TL[EF,F-1] for unranked, unordered finite trees. The logic has two operators: EF φ, which says “in some proper descendant φ holds”, and F-1 φ, which says “in some proper ancestor φ holds”. We present an algorithm for deciding if a regular language of unranked finite trees can be expressed in TL[EF,F-1]. The algorithm uses a characterization expressed in terms of equations in forest algebras.

Alternation-Free Modal Mu-Calculus for Data Trees
Marcin Jurdziński and Ranko Lazic

An alternation-free modal mu-calculus over data trees is introduced and studied. A data tree is an unranked ordered tree whose every node is labelled by a letter from a finite alphabet and an element (“datum”) from an infinite set. For expressing data-sensitive properties, the calculus is equipped with freeze quantification. A freeze quantifier stores in a register the datum labelling the current tree node, which can then be accessed for equality comparisons deeper in the formula.

The main results in the paper are that, for the fragment with forward modal operators and one register, satisfiability over finite data trees is decidable but not primitive recursive, and that for the subfragment consisting of safety formulae, satisfiability over countable data trees is 2EXPTIME-complete. The proofs use alternating tree automata which have registers, and establish correspondences with nondeterministic tree automata which have faulty counters. Allowing backward modal operators or two registers causes undecidability.

As consequences of the main results, decidability and 3EXPTIME-membership for two data-sensitive fragments of the XPath query language are obtained.

The paper shows that, for reasoning about data trees, the forward fragment of the calculus with one register is a powerful alternative to a recently proposed first-order logic with two variables.

A Contraction Method to Decide MSO Theories of Trees
Angelo Montanari and Gabriele Puppis

In this paper we generalize the contraction method, originally proposed by Elgot and Rabin and later extended by Carton and Thomas, from labeled linear orderings to colored deterministic trees. First, we reduce the model checking problem for MSO logic over deterministic colored trees to the acceptance problem for tree automata. Then, we exploit a suitable notion of indistinguishability of trees with respect to tree automata to reduce a number of instances of the latter problem to decidable instances over regular trees. We prove that such a method works effectively for a large class of trees, which is closed under noticeable operations and includes all the deterministic trees of the Caucal hierarchy obtained via unfoldings and inverse finite mappings as well as several trees outside such a hierarchy.


Symmetric Datalog and Constraint Satisfaction Problems in Logspace
Laszlo Egri, Benoit Larose and Pascal Tesson

We introduce symmetric Datalog, a syntactic restriction of linear Datalog and show that the expressive power of symmetric Datalog is exactly that of restricted symmetric Krom SNP. The deep result of Reingold on the complexity of undirected connectivity suffices to show that symmetric Datalog queries can always be evaluated in logarithmic space. We show that for a number of constraint languages Γ, the complement of the constraint satisfaction problem CSP(Γ) can be expressed in symmetric Datalog. In particular, we show that if CSP(Γ) is first-order definable and Λ is a finite subset of the relational clone generated by Γ then ¬ CSP(Λ) is definable in symmetric Datalog. We also show that over the two-element domain and under a standard complexity-theoretic assumption, expressibility of ¬ CSP(Γ) in symmetric Datalog corresponds exactly to the class of CSPs solvable in logarithmic space. Finally, we describe a fairly general subclass of implicational (or 0/1/all) constraints for which the complement of the corresponding CSP is also definable in symmetric Datalog. These all provide preliminary evidence that symmetric Datalog might provide a unifying explanation for families of CSPs lying in logarithmic space.

Quantified Equality Constraints
Manuel Bodirsky and Hubie Chen

An equality template (also equality constraint language) is a relational structure with infinite universe whose relations can be defined by boolean combinations of equalities. We prove a complete complexity classification for quantified constraint satisfaction problems (QCSPs) over equality templates: these problems are in L (decidable in logarithmic space), NP-complete, or PSPACE-complete. To establish our classification theorem we combine methods from universal algebra with concepts from model theory.

Tractability and learnability arising from algebras with few subpowers
Pawel Idziak, Petar Markovic, Ralph McKenzie, Matt Valeriote and Ross Willard

A wide variety of combinatorial problems can be expressed within the framework of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). While the class of all CSPs forms an NP-complete class of problems there are many naturally defined subclasses that are tractable.

One common way to define a subclass of the CSP is to restrict the relations that appear in the constraints of an instance to a specified set of relations over some fixed domain, called a constraint language. The Dichotomy Conjecture of Feder and Vardi states that for any constraint language G, the corresponding subclass of the CSP, denoted CSP(G), is NP-complete or tractable.

A polymorphism of a set of relations G over some set A is a finitary operation on A that preserves all of the relations in G. Groundbreaking work of Jeavons and his co-authors has shown that the tractability of a constraint language is determined by the set of its polymorphisms.

A k-edge operation t on a finite set A is a (k+1)-ary operation that satisfies the identities

t(x,x,y,...,y) = t(x,y,x,y,...,y) = y
t(y,y,y,x,y,y,...,y) = t(y,y,y,y,x,y,...,y) = ... = t(y,y,y,...,y,x) = y.

We prove that any constraint language G that, for some k > 1, has a k-edge operation as a polymorphism is globally tractable. We also show that the set of relations definable over G using quantified generalized formulas is polynomially exactly learnable using improper equivalence queries.

Special instances of k-edge operations are Mal'cev and near-unanimity operations and so this class of constraint languages includes many well known examples.

Proof Complexity

Examining The Fragments of G
Steven James Perron

We prove a witnessing theorem for G1* similar in style to the KPT witnessing theorem for T2i. This theorem is then used to show that S2i proves G1* is sound with respect to prenex Σqi+1 formulas. The witnessing theorem is also used to show that G1* is p-equivalent to a quantified version of extended-Frege. We finish by proving that S2 can be axiomatized by S21 plus axioms stating that the cut-free version of G* is sound.

Separating DAG-Like and Tree-Like Proof Systems
Phuong Nguyen

We show that tree-like (Gentzen's calculus) PK where all cut-formulas have depth at most a constant d does not simulate cut-free PK. Generally, we exhibit a family of sequents that have polynomial size cut-free proofs but requires super-polynomial tree-like proofs even when the cut rule is allowed on a class of cut-formulas that satisfies some plausible hardness assumption. This gives (in some cases, conditionally) negative answers to several questions from a recent work of Maciel and Pitassi (LICS 2006).

The Complexity of Proving the Discrete Jordan Curve Theorem
Phuong Nguyen and Stephen A. Cook

We formalize and prove the Jordan Curve Theorem in the context of grid graphs, under different input settings, in theories of bounded arithmetic that correspond to the complexity classes AC0 and AC0(2). One consequence is that the Hex tautologies and the st-Connectivity tautologies have polynomial size AC0(2)-Frege-proofs. This improves results of Buss, who gave similar upper bounds for these tautologies for the stronger proof system TC0-Frege.

Finite Model Theory

Locally Excluding a Minor
Anuj Dawar, Martin Grohe and Stephan Kreutzer

We introduce the concept of locally excluded minors. For short, a class of graphs locally excludes a minor, if for every radius r there is a graph H(r) so that every r-neighbourhood in a graph of this class excludes H(r). Graph classes locally excluding a minor generalise the concept of excluded minor classes but also of graph classes with bounded local tree-width and even graph classes with bounded expansion.

We show that any first-order definable decision problem becomes fixed-parameter tractable on any class of graphs with locally excluded minors. This strictly generalises analogous results by Flum and Grohe on excluded minor classes and Frick and Grohe on classes with bounded local tree-width.

As an important consequence of the proof we obtain fixed-parameter algorithms for problems such as dominating or independent set on graph classes excluding a minor, where now the parameter is the size of the dominating set and the excluded minor. Up to now, the question whether these problems are fixed-parameter tractable if the excluded minor is part of the parameter had been open.

We also study graph classes with excluded minors, where the minor may grow slowly with the size of the graphs and show that again, any first-order definable decision problem is fixed-parameter tractable on any such class of graphs.

Lindström theorems for fragments of first-order logic
Balder ten Cate, Jouko Vaananen and Johan van Benthem

Lindstrom theorems characterize logics in terms of model-theoretic conditions such as Compactness and the Lowenheim-Skolem property. Most existing Lindstrom theorems characterize extensions of first-order logic. On the other hand, many logics relevant to computer science are fragments or extensions of fragments of first-order logic, for example k-variable logics and various modal logics. Finding Lindström theorems for these languages can be a challenging problem, because most techniques used in the past rely on coding arguments that seem to require the full expressive power of first-order logic.

In this paper, we provide Lindstrom characterizations for a number of fragments of first-order logic. These include the k-variable fragments for k>2, Tarski's relation algebra, graded modal logic, and the binary guarded fragment. We use two different proof techniques. One is a modification of the original Lindstrom proof, but with a new twist. The other involves the modal concepts of bisimulation, tree unraveling, and finite depth. Our results can also be used to derive semantic preservation theorems for these fragments of first-order logic.

Characterizing the 2-variable fragment or the full guarded fragment remain open problems.

Concurrency and Process Calculus

Environment Bisimulations for Higher-Order Languages
Naoki Kobayashi, Davide Sangiorgi and Eijiro Sumii

Developing a theory of bisimulation in higher-order languages can be hard. Particularly challenging can be the proof of congruence and, related to this, enhancements of the bisimulation proof method with “up-to context” techniques. Also, it is challenging to obtain methods that are robust (definitions and results that can be transported onto languages with different features).

We present environment bisimulations, a form of bisimulation for higher-order languages, and its basic theory. We consider four representative calculi: pure λ-calculi (call-by-name and call-by-value), call-by-value lambda-calculus with higher-order store, and Higher-Order π-calculus. In each case: we present the basic properties of environment bisimilarity, including congruence; we show that it coincides with contextual equivalence; we develop some up-to techniques, including up-to context, as examples of possible enhancements of the associated bisimulation method.

Unlike previous approaches (such as applicative bisimulations, logical relations, Sumii-Pierce-Koutavas-Wand), our method is direct in the sense that it does not require induction or indices on evaluation derivation or steps (which may complicate the proofs of congruence, transitivity, and the combination with up-to techniques), or sophisticated methods such as Howe's for proving congruence, and is robust in the sense that definitions and results scale from the pure lambda-calculi to the richer calculi, incurring no essential difficulty, with simple congruence proof.

π-Calculus in Logical Form
Marcello Bonsangue and Alexander Kurz

Abramsky's logical formulation of domain theory is extended to encompass the domain theoretic model for π-calculus processes of Stark and of Fiore, Moggi and Sangiorgi. This is done by defining a logical counterpart of categorical constructions including dynamic name allocation and name exponentiation, and showing that they are dual to standard constructs in functor categories. We show that initial algebras of functors defined in terms of these constructs give rise to a logic that is sound, complete, and characterises bisimilarity. The approach is modular, and we apply it to derive a logical formulation of π-calculus. The resulting logic is a modal calculus with primitives for input, free output and bound output.

Characterising Testing Preorders for Finite Probabilistic Processes
Yuxin Deng, Rob van Glabbeek, Matthew Hennessy, Carroll Morgan and Chenyi Zhang

In 1992 Larsen and Wang extended the may- and must preorders of De Nicola and Hennessy to processes featuring probabilistic as well as nondeterministic choice. They concluded with two problems that have remained open throughout the years, namely to find complete axiomatisations and alternative characterisations for these preorders. This paper solves both problems for finite processes with silent moves. It characterises the may preorder in terms of simulation, and the must preorder in terms of failure simulation. It also gives a characterisation of both preorders using a modal logic. Finally it axiomatises both preorders over a probabilistic version of CSP.

Semantics of Programming Languages

Bialgebraic operational semantics and modal logic
Bartek Klin

A novel, general approach is proposed to proving compositionality of process equivalences on languages defined by Structural Operational Semantics (SOS). The approach, based on modal logic, is inspired by the simple observation that if the set of formulas satisfied by a process can be derived from the corresponding sets for its subprocesses, then the logical equivalence is a congruence. Striving for generality, SOS rules are modeled categorically as bialgebraic distributive laws for some notions of process syntax and behaviour, and modal logic is modeled via coalgebraic polyadic modal logic. Compositionality is proved by providing a suitable notion of behaviour for the logic together with a dual distributive law, coherent with the one modeling the SOS specification. Concretely, the dual laws may appear as SOS-like rules where logical formulas play the role of processes, and their behaviour models logical decomposition over process syntax. The approach can be used either to proving compositionality for specific languages or for defining SOS congruence formats.

Relational Parametricity for Computational Effects
Rasmus Ejlers Mogelberg and Alex Simpson

According to Strachey, a polymorphic program is parametric if it applies a uniform algorithm independently of the type instantiations at which it is applied. The notion of relational parametricity, introduced by Reynolds, is one possible mathematical formulation of this idea. Relational parametricity provides a powerful tool for establishing data abstraction properties, proving equivalences of datatypes, and establishing equalities of programs. Such properties have been well studied in a pure functional setting. Real programs, however, exhibit computational effects. In this paper, we develop a framework for extending the notion of relational parametricity to languages with effects.

Static Name Control for FreshML
Francois Pottier

FreshML extends ML with constructs for declaring and manipulating abstract syntax trees that involve names and statically scoped binders. It is impure: name generation is an observable side effect. In practice, this means that FreshML allows writing programs that create fresh names and unintentionally fail to bind them. Following in the steps of early work by Pitts and Gabbay, this paper defines Pure FreshML, a subset of FreshML equipped with a static proof system that guarantees purity. Pure FreshML relies on a rich binding specification language, on user-provided assertions, expressed in a logic that allows reasoning about values and about the names that they contain, and on a conservative, automatic decision procedure for this logic. It is argued that Pure FreshML can express non-trivial syntax-manipulating algorithms.

Local Action and Abstract Separation Logic
Cristiano Calcagno, Peter O'Hearn and Hongseok Yang

Separation logic is an extension of Hoare's logic which supports a local way of reasoning about programs that mutate memory. We present a study of the semantic structures lying behind the logic. The core idea is of a local action, a state transformer that mutates the state in a local way. We formulate local actions for a general class of models called separation algebras, abstracting from the RAM and other specific concrete models used in work on separation logic. Local actions provide a semantics for a generalized form of (sequential) separation logic. We also show that our conditions on local actions provide sufficient circumscription to allow a general soundness proof for a separation logic for concurrency, interpreted over arbitrary separation algebras.

Game Semantics

Resource Modalities in Game Semantics
Paul-André Melliès and Nicolas Tabareau

The description of resources in game semantics has never achieved the simplicity and precision of linear logic, because of a misleading conception: the belief that linear logic is more primitive than game semantics.

We advocate instead the contrary: that game semantics is conceptually more primitive than linear logic.

Starting from this revised point of view, we define a categorical model of resources in game semantics, and construct an arena game model where the usual notion of bracketing is extended to multi-bracketing, or sessions, in order to capture various resource policies: linear, affine and exponential.

Full abstraction for nominal general references
Nikos Tzevelekos

Game semantics has been used with considerable success in formulating fully abstract semantics for languages with higher-order procedures and a wide range of computational effects. Recently, nominal games have been proposed for modeling functional languages with names. These are ordinary games cast in the theory of nominal sets developed by Pitts and Gabbay. Here we take nominal games one step further, by developing a fully abstract semantics for a language with nominal general references.

Linear Logic

Stratified Bounded Affine Logic for Logarithmic Space
Ulrich Schoepp

A number of complexity classes, most notably PTIME have been characterised by restricted versions of linear logic. In this paper we show that the functions computable in logarithmic space can also be characterised by a version of linear logic. We introduce Stratified Bounded Affine Logic (BAL), a restricted version of Bounded Linear Logic, in which not only the modality ! but also the universal quantifier is bounded by a resource polynomial. We show that the proofs of certain sequents in BAL represent exactly the functions computable logarithmic space. The proof that BAL-proofs can be compiled to LOGSPACE functions rests on modelling computation by interaction dialogues in the style of game semantics. We formulate the compilation of BAL-proofs to space-efficient programs as an interpretation in a realisability model, in which realisers are taken from a Geometry of Interaction situation.

Light Logics and Optimal Reduction: Completeness and Complexity
Patrick Baillot, Paolo Coppola and Ugo Dal Lago

We study the applications of Elementary Affine Logic (EAL) and Light Affine Logic (LAL) typing to optimal reduction. This setting allows to use the abstract version of Lamping's algorithm, without the delicate oracle decision part. We consider the extensions of these type systems with fixpoints, define translations of typed lambda-terms into sharing graphs and prove the soundness of Lamping's abstract algorithm with respect to beta-reduction. This is done using a suitable context semantics. We then show our main result, establishing intrinsic complexity bounds for the optimal reduction of these sharing graphs: for sharing graphs coming from LAL (respectively, EAL) typed terms and at a given depth, optimal reduction is performed in polynomial (respectively, elementary) time.

Modified Realizability Interpretation of Classical Linear Logic
Paulo Oliva

This paper presents a modified realizability interpretation of classical linear logic. Our interpretation is based on work of de Paiva (1989), Blass (1995), and Shirahata (2006) on categorical models of classical linear logic using Gödel's Dialectica interpretation. Whereas the Dialectica categories provide models of linear logic, our interpretation is presented as an endo-interpretation of proofs, which does not leave the realm of classical linear logic. The advantage is that we can obtain stronger versions of the disjunction and existence properties, and new conservation results for certain choice principles. Of particular interest is a simple form of branching quantifier, dubbed “simultaneous” quantifier, which is introduced in the order to obtain a completeness result for the modified realizability interpretation.

Topology and Computable Mathematics

Infinite sets that admit fast exhaustive search II
Martín Escardó

Perhaps surprisingly, there are infinite sets that admit mechanical exhaustive search in finite time, for any decidable property. A first example, the Cantor set of infinite sequences of booleans, goes back to Gandy and Berger independently.

Our primary contribution is a comprehensive investigation of such sets from the point of view of computability theory. We develop tools for systematically building them and a compelling characterization. They include the finite sets, and are closed under intersections with decidable sets, and under the formation of computable images, and finite and countably infinite products. In total higher-type computation over the natural numbers, they are precisely the computable images of the Cantor set. These results assume that one works with Kleene-Kreisel functionals; the Cantor set fails to be exhaustible from the point of view of hereditarily effective functionals.

The specifications of our algorithms can be understood without much background, but an understanding of the algorithms themselves requires a fair amount of topology and domain theory. The closure properties and characterization of exhaustibility resemble those of compactness in topology. This is no accident: exhaustible sets are to compact sets as computable functions are to continuous maps. This plays a crucial role in the correctness proofs of the algorithms, and, indeed, in their very construction.

Our secondary contribution is a preliminary investigation of efficiency and complexity. We have promising experimental results, implemented in the higher-type programming language Haskell, and tentative theoretical explanations.

On Noetherian Spaces
Jean Goubault-Larrecq

Call a topology well if and only if every open is compact. The starting point of this note is that this notion generalizes that of well-quasi order, in the sense that an Alexandroff topology is well if and only if its specialization quasi-ordering is well. For more general topologies, this opens the way to verifying infinite transition systems based on non-well quasi ordered sets, but where the Pre operator satisfies an additional continuity assumption. The technical development rests heavily on techniques arising from topology and domain theory, including sobriety and the de Groot dual of a stably compact space. Finally, we note that if X is well topologized, then the set of all (even infinite) subsets of X is again well topologized, a result that fails for well-quasi orders, and which is usually taken as justification for moving to the theory of better quasi-orderings. Well topologies therefore offer an alternative to the latter in verification.

A Computable Approach to Measure and Integration Theory
Abbas Edalat

We introduce, for the first time, a computable framework for Lebesgue's measure and integration theory. For an effectively given locally compact second countable Hausdorff space and an effectively given locally finite Borel measure on the space, we define the notion of a computable measurable set with respect to the given measure, provide a simple characterization of computable open sets with respect to the measure and show that the set of computable measurable subsets is closed under complementation, finite unions and finite intersections. We then introduce the bi-omega-complete partial order of extended real interval-valued measurable functions and show that they are precisely those functions whose upper and lower parts are measurable as extended real-valued functions. We then develop the notion of computable measurable functions using interval-valued simple functions. This leads us to the interval versions of the main results of the theory of Lebesgue integration which provide a computable framework for measure and integration theory. This includes the notion of a computable Lebesgue integrable function. The Lebesgue integral of a computable integrable function with respect to an effectively given (σ-)finite Borel measure on an effectively given (locally) compact second countable Hausdorff space can be computed up to any required accuracy. We show finally that, with respect to a metric induced from the L1 norm, the set of Scott continuous interval-valued functions is dense in the set of interval-valued integrable functions.

Short presentations

The common fragment of CTL and LTL needs existential modalities
Mikołaj Bojańczyk
A Bisimulation-based Proof System for the Equational Theory of Kleene Algebra
James Worthington
On the effect of bad variables
Andrzej Murawski
Descriptive characterization of quantum circuits (Abstract)
Manas Patra